Living Reviews in Relativity: “Extraction of gravitational waves in numerical relativity”

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The open-access journal Living Reviews in Relativity has published a new review article on “Extraction of gravitational waves in numerical relativity” by Nigel T. Bishop and Luciano Rezzolla on 4 October 2016 (metadata correction 10 November 2016):

Bishop, N.T. and Rezzolla, L.,
“Extraction of gravitational waves in numerical relativity”,
Living Rev Relativ (2016) 19: 2.

A numerical-relativity calculation yields in general a solution of the Einstein equations including also a radiative part, which is in practice computed in a region of finite extent. Since gravitational radiation is properly defined only at null infinity and in an appropriate coordinate system, the accurate estimation of the emitted gravitational waves represents an old and non-trivial problem in numerical relativity. A number of methods have been developed over the years to “extract” the radiative part of the solution from a numerical simulation and these include: quadrupole formulas, gauge-invariant metric perturbations, Weyl scalars, and characteristic extraction. We review and discuss each method, in terms of both its theoretical background as well as its implementation. Finally, we provide a brief comparison of the various methods in terms of their inherent advantages and disadvantages.