Contact:  sergio.cacciatori[AT]uninsubria.itLocation:  Domodossola, Italy
The Domoschool 2023 edition wants to focus on these issues: one of the most debated current topics in the scientific environment concerns the dynamics of galaxies. The problem concerns both the cosmological scales, given that the galaxies appear to move away from each other with increasing acceleration, and the galactic scales since the gases that form the surrounding halo appear to rotate around each galaxy at a much greater speed than predicted by the Newton theory of gravitation.
In the first case, a standard interpretation is to attribute the relative acceleration between the galaxies to an expansion of the universe caused by the presence of an energy that exerts pressure on the whole universe causing its expansion. This energy is called dark energy. In the second case, however, the gas motion seems compatible with the fact that the mass present in the given region is much greater than that which can be observed directly. So we can imagine that in addition to the visible mass, there is also some non-visible matter distributed around each galaxy, which considerably increases the mass of the galaxies. This is called dark matter.
To explain the movements of the observed universe we arrive at the conclusion that ordinary matter should constitute only 5% of all matter in the universe, while about 68% would be dark energy and 27% dark matter. While dark energy is compatible with the presence of a cosmological constant, hypothesized by Einstein over a century ago, the nature of dark matter is much more mysterious, so much so that an alternative school of thought proposes instead the absence of dark matter (never revealed in any experiment to date) in favor of new laws of universal gravitation at ultra-galactic scales (MOND theories). A third stream instead investigates the possibility that non-Newtonian effects of general relativity could help settle the issue by decreasing the amount of dark matter needed to explain galactic motions.
The aim of the school is to introduce Ph.D. students, postdocs, and young researchers, both in mathematics and physics, to this topic.
Courses will be conducted at Ph.D. level by world-leading experts.
Moreover, students will have the opportunity to give 20 minutes talks presenting their research on themes related to the main topics of the courses.
Informal discussions will be strongly encouraged, and specific time slots (short talks) will be reserved for this important part of the school.
The school is mainly dedicated to PhD students, postdocs and young researchers, but interaction with and among professors will be also encouraged.